TOP online casino

Monkey Happy Stage 567

550

DICTIONARY OF ISLAM.

S.

SA'. or SUWA' A certain measure used for measuring corn, and upon which depend the decisions of Muslims relating to measures of capacity. It occurs in the Qur'an, Surah xii. 72, for the drinking-cup placed by Joseph in his brother's pack.

The compiler of the Taju 'l-'Arus, says that according to five different, Monkey Happy Stage 567. readers of the Qur'an, it is given suwa' in that verse! but in the majority of texts it is sa'.

The Qamus explains suwa' as a certain vessel from which one drinks a and sa', a measure of capacity. Its invariable measure being, according to ancient authorities, four times the quantity of corn that fills two hands of a man of moderate size.

Al-Baizawi records, besides suwa' and sa' the reading saw and suwagh.

SABA'. A tribe of Yaman, whose dwelling-placed are called Ma rib, mentioned in the xxxxvth Surah of the Qur'an (entitled the Suratu Saba), verse 14:�

"A sign there was to Saba' in their dwelling places:-�two gardens, the one on the right hand and the other on the left: Eat ye of your Lord's supplies, and give thanks to him: Goodly is the country. and gracious is the Lord!'

"But they turned aside: an we sent upon., them the flood of Iram: and we changed them their gardens into two gardens of bitter fruit and tamarisk and some few jujube trees

Such was our retribution on them for their ingratitude."

M. Caussin de Perceval. Hist. des Arabes, vol. iii., as well as M. de Sacy, fix this event in the second century of the Christian era.

(2) Also the name of a province referred to in the Qur'an, Surah xxvii. 21, where it seems to be identical with the Sheba ~ of the Bible, is the country of the Queen of Sheba :�

"Nor tarried it (the lapwing) long ere it came and said, 'I have gained the knowledge that thou knowest not, and with sure tidings have I come to thee from Saba':

"'I found. a woman reigning over them, gifted with everything, and she hath a splendid throne; "And I found her and her people worshipping the Sun instead of God; and Satan hath made their works fair seeming to them, so that he hath turned them from the Way: wherefore they are not guided,

"To the worship of God, who bringeth to light the secret things of heaven and earth, and knoweth what men conceal and what they manifest:

"God: there is no god but He! the lord of the glorious throne!"

For a discussion of the identity of Monkey Happy Stage 567 Saba' of Arabia with the Sheba of the Bible, refer to the word Sheba in Smith's Dictionary of the Bible.

SAB'ATU-AHRUF..

[SEVEN DIALECTS.]

SABA'U 'L-MASANI.Lit. "The Seven Repetitions." A title given to the Introductory Chapter of the Qur'an by Muhammad himself. (Mishkat book viii. ch. i.). There are three reasons assigned for this title:-

1. Because it is a chapter of seven verses, which is said to have been revealed twice over.

2. Because it contains seven words twice repeated, namely, Allah, God, Rahman, Compassionate; Rahim, Merciful; Iyaka, Monkey Happy Stage 567, Thee and to Thee; Sirat, Way; 'Akihim, to whom and with whom; Ghair, Not, and La, Not.

(3) Because the seven verses are generally recited twice during an ordinary prayer. (See Majma'u'l-Bihar, in loco; and Abdu 'l-Haqq.)

SABBATH. The term used in the Qur'an for the Jewish Sabbath is Sabt a corruption of the Hebrew Shabbath.

It occurs five times in the Qur'an:-

Surah ii. 61: "Ye know, too, those of you who transgressed on the Sabbath., and to whom We (God) said, Become scouted apes."

Surah iv. 50: "Or curse you as We (God) cursed the Sabbath breakers."

Surah iv. 158: "We (God) said to them (Israel), Break not the Sabbath."

Surah vii. 168: "And ask them (the Jews) about the city that stood by the sea when it's inhabitants broke the Sabbath; when their fish came to them appearing openly on their Sabbath-day, but not to them en the day when they kept no Sabbath."

Surah xvi. 125: "The Sabbath was only ordained for those who differed about it."

In explanation of these verses, the commentator, al-Baizawi relates the following traditions. Moses gave orders for the observance of the Day of Rest on Friday; but the Jews would not obey, and declared that they would observe Saturdays as it was on that day that God rested from creation, so it came to pass that "the Sabbath' was ordained for those who differed about it." But in the time of King David, certain people began to break the Sabbath by fishing in the Red Sea near the town of Ailah (Elath), and as a punishment they were turned into apes.

For an account of the Muhammadan Sabbath, see [FRIDAY.]


551

SABEANS. Arabic Sabi' pl. Sabi'un. Probably from the Hebrew "a host." Gen. ii. 1 i.e. "Those who worship the hosts of heaven. According to some Arabic writers, the Sabi'un were a certain sect of unbelievers who worshipped the stars secretly, and openly professed to be Christians. According to others, they are of the religion of Sabi', the son of Seth, the son of Adam; whilst others say their religion resembled that of the Christians, except that their qiblah was towards the south, from whence the wind blows. In the Qamus it is said they were of the religion of Noah. The word sabi' also means one who has departed from one religion to another religion, and the Arabs used to call the Prophet as-Sabi' because he departed from the religion of the Quraish to al-Islam. (See Lane's Dict. in loco.) Al-Baizawi says some assert they were worshippers of angels, others that they were the worshippers of the stars.

They are mentioned three times in the Qur'an, Yılbaşı Trenleri from the following verses it would appear that. Muhammad regarded them as believers in the true God.

Surah ii, Monkey Happy Stage 567. 50: "They who believe and they who are Jews, and the Christians, and the Sabeans�whoever believeth in God and the Last Day, and doeth that which is right, shall have their reward with their Lord."

Surah v. 73: ' They who believe, and the Jews and the Sabeans, and the Christians�whoever of them believeth in God. and in the Last Day; and doeth what is right, on them shall no fear come; neither shall they be put to grief."

Surah vi 73: "They who believe, and' the Jews, and the ~abeans, and the ('hri~-dana, and the Magians, 'and those who em other gods with God. verily God shall decide between them on the Day of Resurrection."

SABI'. .[SABAIANS.]

SABILU 'LLAH.. "The road of God." A term used for religions warfare and other meritorious deeds; e.g. Qur'an, Surah ii.:-

Verse 149: "And say not, of those who are slain in the road of God that they are dead, but rather that they are living."

Verse 263: "Those who expend their wealth in the road of God." [JIHAD.]

SABT. [SABBATH.]

SACRAMENTS, CHRISTIAN.

[EUCHARIST, BAPTISM.]

SACRIFICE.

There are six words used In the Muhammadan religion to express the idea of sacrifice.

(1) zabh, Hebrew zebach. Like the Hebrew word (Gen. xxxi. 54), the Arabic is used generally for slaughtering animals, whether on the Great Festival of Sacrifice ['IDU 'L-AZHA], or ordinary times, for foods in the Qamus the word zabh is defined "to split or pierce, to cut the throat of any creature". In the Qur'an, the word a used for the slaughtering of the heifer by Moses (Surah ii. 63). For the slaying of the sons of Israel by Pharaoh (Surah ii 46), for sacrificing to idols (Surah v. 4); and for the intention of Abraham to sacrifice his son (Surah xxxvii. 101).

(2) qurban, Hebrew korban, (Lev. Ii. 14) Lit. "Approaching near." 'It occurs twice in the Qur'an, for Monkey Happy Stage 567 sacrifice to be devoured by fire from heaven, Monkey Happy Stage 567, which the Jews demanded of Muhammad (Surah iii. 179), and for the offering of the sons of Adam (Surah v. 30). It is a word frequently employed in Islam to express the ordinary sacrifice, and the great festival is called in Persia the 'Id-i- Qurban, or "Feast of Sacrifice."

(3) nahr. Lit. "To injure the jugular vein." Used for stabbing the breast of a camel, as in sacrifice, hence the sacrifice itself. It occurs once in the Qur'an, Surah cviii. 1, 2 "Verily we have given thee al-Kausar so pray to thy Lord and sacrifice which ,al-Baizawi says means to sacrifice a camel, the most costly victim of the Arabians. The 'Idu 'i-Azha is called the Yaumu n-Nahr. [IDU L-AZHA.]

(4) uzhiyah. A. word which does not occur in the Qur'an, but in the Traditions it is the subject of a Chapter in Mishkatu 'l-Masabih (book iv. ch. xlix.). According to the Qamis, it is derived from zahw, zuha, a word which expresses that time of the day when the sun has risen to a considerable height, about 10 A.M. (Salatu 'z-Zuha, being a voluntary prayer am that hour). Uzhiyah is therefore the sacrifice offered about 10' o'clock on the day of the Great Festival.

(5) Hady. or, according to another reading, Hadi occurs four times in the Qur'an, Surahs ii. 198, v, Monkey Happy Stage 567. 2. 90, 98, for offering of an animal for sacrifice sent to the temple at Makkah, when the pilgrim is not able to reach in time. The Qamus defines it as that "which is presented." At-Baizawi (Tafsir, p. 100) gives Hady as the plural form of Hadyah and Hadi as that of Hadiyah. The latter occurs in the Qur'an, Surah xxvii. 85, for an offering or gift, and seems to have the same meaning as the Hebrew minchah, which is used in the Old Testament for a gift or tribute (Gen. iv. 3), and also for the unbloody sacrifice or "meat oftering" (Lev. ii. 1).

(6) mansak. Occurs in the Qur'an, Surah xxii. 35 :" We have appointed to every nation a rite (mansak)." Surah ii. 122: "Show us our rites (manasik): also verse 196. Al-Baizawi (Tafsir, p. .91), to the first passage, says the word means a. place of devotion, or a sacrifice which draws a man near to God, and mentions another reading, mansik, a place of worship of which manasik is like-wise the plural form, is translated by the late Professor Palmer "rite." [RITES.]


552

II. There are only two occasions upon which Muhammadans sacrifice, namely, on the Great Festival held on the 10th day of Zu l-Hijjah ['IDU 'L-AZHA] and on the birth of a child [AQIQAH.]

(1) The great sacrifice recognised by the Muslim faith is that on the Great Festival, called the 'Idu 'l-Azha, or "Feast of Sacrifice." This sacrifice is not only offered by the pilgrims at Makkah, but in all parts of Islam, upon the day of sacrifice. In the first place, this sacrifice is said to have been established in commemoration of Abraham having consented to sacrifice his son (most Muslims say it was Ishmael), as recorded in the Qur'an, when it is said God "ransomed his (Abraham's) son with a costly victim" (Surah xxxvii. 107); but Shaikh 'Abdu 'l-Haqq, in his commentary on the Mishkat. also says that al-Uziyjah, "the sacrifice," is that which at the special time (i.e. on the festival) is slaughtered with the object of obtaining nearness to God.

(2) The teaching of the Qur'an on the subject of sacrifice is conveyed in the following verses (Surah xiii. 37) :�

"The bulky (camels) we made for you one of the symbols of God (Sha'a'iri 'llahi), therein have ye good. So mention the name of God over them as they stand in a row (for sacrifice), Monkey Happy Stage 567, Monkey Happy Stage 567 when they fall down (dead), eat of them and feed the easily contented and him who begs. Thus have we subjected them to you; haply ye may give thanks. Their flesh will never reach to God, nor yet their blood, but the 'piety from you will reach Him."

Al-Baizawi on this verse says, "It, the flesh of the sacrifice, does not reach unto God, Monkey Happy Stage 567, nor its blood, but the piety (taqwa) that is the sincerity and intention of your heart." (Tafsiru 'l-Baizawi, vol. ii. p. 52.) Monkey Happy Stage 567 (3) In the Traditions (Mishkat, book iv. ch. xlix.) we have the following:-

Anas says : "The prophet sacrificed two rams, one was black, and the other was white, and he put his foot on their sides as he killed Monkey Happy Stage 567, and cried out, Monkey Happy Stage 567, 'Bi'-smi 'llahi, Allahu akbar! In the name of God! God is most great!'" <> 'Ayishah says: "The Prophet ordered a ram with horns to be brought to him, and one that should walk in blankness, sleep in blackness, and look in blackness (by which he meant with black legs, black breast, and belly, and black eyes), "and he said, 'O 'Ayishah, give me a knife and sharpen it!' And I did so. Then the Prophet took hold of the ram and threw him on his side and slew it. And when he was killing it be said, 'In the name of God'! O God accept this from Muhammad, and from his children, and from his tribe!' Afterwards he gave to the people their morning meal from, the slaughtered ram."

Jabir says: " The Prophet sacrificed two rams on the day of the Festival of Sacrifice, which were black or white, and had horns, and were castrated; and when he turned their heads towards the Qiblah, he said, 'Verily I have turned my face to Him who brought the heavens and the earth Into existence from nothing, according to the religion of Abraham, and I am not of the polytheists. Verily my prayers my worshipping my life, and my death, are for God, the Lord of the universe, Codycross 70li Yıllar Grup 327 Bulmaca 1 Cevapları hath no partner; and I have been ordered to believe in one God, and to abandon associating any other god with Him; and I am one of the Muslims, O God! This sacrifice is of Thee, and for Thee; accept it then from Muhammad and his people!" And he added, 'In the name of God! the Great God!' and then killed them."

'Ali said: "The Prophet. has ordered me to see that there be no blemish in the animal to be sacrificed; and not to sacrifice one with the ears cut, either at. the top or the bottom, or split lengthways, or with holes made in them, Monkey Happy Stage 567. The Prophet prohibited sacrificing a ram with broken horns, or slit ears."

Ayishah relates that the Prophet said: "Man hath not done anything, on the day of sacrifice, more pleasing to God then spilling blood; for verily the animal sacrificed will come on the Day of Resurrection, with its horns, its hair; its hoofs, and will make the scales of his actions heavy and verily its blood reacheth the acceptance of God Monkey Happy Stage 567 it falleth upon the ground; therefore be joyful in it."

Zaid lbn Arqam relates: "The Companions said, 'O messenger of God! what are these sacrifices, and whence is their origin?' He said, 'These sacrifices are conformable to the laws of your father Abrabam.' They said, O Prophet! what are our rewards therefrom?' He said, 'There is a reward annexed to every hair.' The Companions then said, 'O Prophet! what are the rewards from the sacrifices of camels and sheep that have wool?' He said, 'There is a good reward also Monkey Happy Stage 567 every hair of their wool.'"

(4) The following is the teaching of the Hidayah regarding the nature and conditions of the sacrifice:-

It is the duty of every free Muslim arrived at the age of maturity to offer a sacrifice, on the 'Idu 'l-Azha, or "Festival of the Sacrifice," provided he be then possessed of a Nisab (i.e. sufficient property), and be not a traveller. This is the opinion of Abu Hanifah, Muhammad, Zufar, and Hasan, and likewise of Abu Yusuf, according to one tradition. According to another tradition, and also according to ash-Shafi'i, sacrifice Is not an indispensable duty, but only laudable. At-Tahawi reports that, in the opinion of Abu Hanifah, it is indispensable, whilst the disciples hold It to be in a strong degree laudable. The offering of a sacrifice is Incumbent on a man on account of himself, and on account of his infant child. This is the opinion of Abu Hanifah in one tradition. In another he has said that it is not incumbent on a man to offer a sacrifice for his child. In fact, according to Abu Hanifah and Abu Yusuf, a father or guardian is to offer a sacrifice at the expense of the child (when he is possessed of property), Monkey Happy Stage 567, eating what parts of it are eatable, and


553

selling the remaining, parts that are valuable in their substance, such as the skin, &c. Muhammad, Zufar, and ash-Shafl'i have said that a father is to sacrifice on account of his child at his own expense, and not at that of the child. The sacrifice established for one person is a goat; and that for seven, a cow or a camel, Monkey Happy Stage 567. If a cow be sacrificed for any number of people fewer than seven, it is lawful; but it is otherwise if sacrificed on account of eight. If for a party of seven people the contribution of any one of them should be less than a seventh share, the sacrifice is not, valid on the part of any one of them. If a camel that is jointly and in an equal degree the property of two men should be sacrificed by them on their own account, it is lawful; and in this case they must divide the flesh by weight, as. flesh is an article of weight. If, on the contrary, they distribute it from conjectural estimation, it is not lawful, unless they add to each share of the flesh part of the head, neck, and joints. If a person purchase a cow, with an intent to sacrifice it on his own account, and he afterwards admit six others to join with him in the sacrifice, it is lawful. It is, however most advisable that he associate with the others at the time of purchase, in order that the sacrifice may be valid in the opinion of all our doctors, as otherwise there is a difference of opinion. it is related from Abu Hanifah that it is abominable to admit others to share in a sacrifice after purchasing the animal, for, as the purchase was made with a view, to devotion the sale of it is therefore an abomination.

The time of offering the sacrifice is on the morning of the day of the festival, but It is not lawful for the inhabitants of a city to begin the sacrifice until their Imam shall have finished the stated prayers for the day. Villagers, however, may begin after break of day. The place, in fact, must regulate the time. Thus, where the place of celebration is in the country, and the performers of it reside in the city, it is lawful to begin in the morning; but if otherwise, it must be deferred until the stated prayers be ended if the victim be slain after the prayers of the Mosque, and prior to those offered at the place of sacrifice [IDGAH), it is lawful, as is likewise the reverse of this. Sacrifice is lawful during three days � that is, on the day of the festival, and on the two ensuing days. Ash-Shafi'i is of opinion that it is lawful on the three ensuing days. The sacrifice of the day of the festival is far superior to any of the others. It Is also Monkey Happy Stage 567 to sacrifice on the nights of those days, although it be considered as undesirable. Moreover, the offering of sacrifices on these days is more laudable than the custom of emitting them, and afterwards bestowing an adequate sum of money upon the poor. If a person neglect the performance of a sacrifice during the stated days, and have previously determined upon the offering of any particular goat, for instance; or, being poor, have purchased a goat for that purpose, - in either of these cases, it is incumbent on him to bestow it alive in charity. But if he be rich, it is in that case incumbent on him to bestow in charity a sum adequate to the price, whether he have purchased a goat with an intent to sacrifice it, or not. It is not lawful to sacrifice animals that are blemished, such as those that are blind, or lame, or so lean as to have no marrow in their bones, or having a great part of their ears or tail cut off. Such, however, as have a great part of their ears or tail remaining may lawfully be sacrificed. Concerning the determination of a great part of any member, there are, indeed, various opinions Monkey Happy Stage 567 from Abu Hanifah. In some animals he has determined it to be the third; in others more than the third; and in others, again, only the fourth. In the opinion of the two disciples, if more than the half should remain, the sacrifice is valid, and this opinion has been adopted by the learned Abu 'l-Lais. If an Animal have lost the third of its tail, or the third of its ears or eye-sight, it may he lawfully sacrificed: but if in either of these cases, it should have lost more than a third, the offering of it is not lawful. The rule which our doctors have laid down to discover in what degree the eye-sight is impaired is as follows. The animal must first be deprived of its food for a day or two that it may be rendered hungry, and having then covered the eye that is impaired, food must be gradually brought towards it from a distance, Monkey Happy Stage 567, until it indicate by some emotion hat it has discovered it. Having marked the particular spot at which it observed the food, and uncovered the weak eye, the perfect eye must then be bound, and the same process carried on until it indicate that it has observed it with the defective eye. If, then, the particular distance from those parts to where the animal stood be measured, it may be known, from the proportion they bear to each other, in what degree the sight is impaired.

It is not lawful to offer a sacrifice of any animal except a camel, a cow, or a goat for it is not recorded that the Prophet, or any of his companions, Monkey Happy Stage 567, ever sacrificed others. Buffaloes, however, are lawful as being of the species of a cow. Every animal of a mixed breed, moreover, is considered as of the same species with the mother.

If a Christian or any person whose object is the flesh, and not the sacrifice, be a sharer with six others, the sacrifice is not lawful on the part of any. It is lawful for a, Monkey Happy Stage 567. person who offers a sacrifice either to eat the flesh or to bestow it on whomsoever he pleases, whether rich or poor, and he may also lay it up In store. It is most advisable that the third part of the flesh of a sacrifice be bestowed in charity. It is not lawful to give a part of the sacrifice in payment to the butcher. It is abominable to take the wool of the victim and sell it before the sacrifice be performed, but not after the sacrifice. In the same manner, it is abominable to milk the victim and sell the milk. It is most advisable that the person who offers the


554

Sacrifice should himself perform it, provided he be well acquainted with the method, but if he should not be expert at it, it is then advisable that he take the assistance Monkey Happy Stage 567 another, and be present at the operation. It is abominable to commit the slaying of the victim to a Kitabi (a Jew or Christian). if, however, a person order a Kitabi to stay his victim, it is lawful. It is otherwise where a person orders a M' an, or worshipper of fire, to slay his victim, for this is inadmissible. (Hamilton's Hidiyah, vol. iv. 76.)

(5) Monkey Happy Stage 567 the foregoing references to the Qur'an, the Traditions, 'Abdu 'l-Haqq, al Baizawi, it will appear that whilst the Muhammadan sacrifice is (1) Commemorative, having been instituted in commemoration of Abraham's willingness to offer his son (2) Self Dedicatory, as expressed in the Traditional sayings of Muhammad; and (3) Eucharistic, according to the verse in the Qur'an already quoted, "Haply ye may give thanks"; that the expiatory character of the sacrifice is not clearly established, for there is no offering for, or acknowledgment of, sin, Monkey Happy Stage 567, connected with the institution. Muhammadanism, true to its anti-Christian character, ignores the doctrine that "without shedding of blood there is no remission." (Lev. xvii. 11; Heb ix. 22.)

(6) At the birth of a child ,it is incumbent upon the Muhammadan father to sacrifice a goat (one for a girl and two for a boy) at the ceremony called 'Aqiqah, which is celebrated on either the seventh, fourteenth, twenty-first, twenty-eighth, or thirty-fifth day after birth, when the hair is first shaved and its weight in silver given to the poor. 'Abdu 'l-Haqq says 'Aqiqah comes from 'aqq, "To cut," and refers to cutting the throat of the animal. Others refer it to cutting the hair. The idea of the sacrifice on this occasion is dedicatory and Eucharistic. Buraidah says, "We used, in the time of ignorance, when children were born to us, to slay sheep and rub the child's head with the blood; but when Islam came we sacrificed a sheep on the seventh day, and shaved the child's head and rubbed saffron on it."

SAD. The fourteenth letter of the Arabic alphabet. The title of the xxxviiith Surah of the Qur'an, which begins with the letter.

SADAQAH. pI. Güvenlik Kamerası Oyunu. From sadq, "to be righteous, truthful"; Hebrew tsedek, Monkey Happy Stage 567. A term used In the Qur'an for "almsgiving,". e.g. Surah ii. 265: "Kind speech and pardon are better than almsgiving (sadaqah) followed by annoyance, for God is rich and clement."

Sadqatu 'l-Fitr is the alms given on the lesser Festival, called the 'Idu 'l-Fitr, which consists of half a sa' of wheat, flour, or fruits, or one sa' of barley. This shouId be distributed to the poor before the prayers of the festival are said. (Hidiyah, vol. i, Monkey Happy Stage 567. p. 62.) ['IDU 'L-FITR.]

SA'D IBN ABI WAQQAS. Called also Sa'd ibn Malik ibn Wahb az-Zubri. He was the seventh person who embraced Islam, and was present with Muhammad Monkey Happy Stage 567 all his battles. He died at 'Atiq .A.H. 55, at the age of 79, and was buried at al-Madinah.

SA'D IBN MU'AZ. The chief of the Banu Aus. He embraced Islam at al-Madinah after the first pledge at 'Aqabah. He died of wounds received at the battle of the Ditch, A.H. 5. (See Muir's Life of Mahomet. vol iii. 282.)

SA'D IBN 'UBADAH. One of the Companions and an Ansari of great reputation. He carried the standard at the conquest of Makkah. Died A.H. 15.

SADR., or Sadru 's-Sudur. The chief judge. Under Muhammadan rule, he was especially charged with the appointment of religious grants and the appointment of law officers.

SADUM. [SODOM.]

AS-SAFA. A hill near Makkah. One of the sacred places visited by the pilgrims during the Hajj. [PILGRIMAGE.]

SAFAR.Lit. "The void month.' The second month of the Muhammadan year. So called because in it the ancient Arabs went forth on their predatory expeditions and left their houses sifr, or empty; or, according to some, because when it was first named it occurred in the autumn, when the leaves of the trees were sifr, or "yellow." (Ghiyasu 'l-Lughah, in loco.) [MONTHES.]

SAFF. An even row or line of things.

(1) A, Monkey Happy Stage 567. term used for a row of persons standing up for prayers.

(2) As-Saff, the title of the LXIth Surah of the Qur'an, in the 6th verse of which the word occurs for the close unbroken line of an army.

AS-SAFFAT. pl. of saffah, "Ranged in ranks". The title of the xxxviith Surah of the Qur'an, in the first verse of which the angels are mentioned as being ranged in ranks.

SAFIYAH. One of the wives of Muhammad. She was the widow of Kininah, the Jewish chief of Khaibar, who was cruelly put to death. In after years it is said Muhammad wished to divorce her, but she begged to continue his wife, and requested that her turn might be given to 'Aylshah, as she wished to be one of the Prophet's "pure wives" in Paradise.

SAFIYU 'LLAH.Lit. "The Chosen of God." A title given in the Traditions to Adam, the father Monkey Happy Stage 567 mankind. [ADAM.]


555

SAFIYU 'LLAH.. The Zipporah of the Bible. The wife of Moses. According to Muslim Lexicons, she was the daughter of ,Shu'aib. [MOSES.]

SAFWAN IBN UMAIYAH. A Sahabi of reputation. A native of Makkah. He was slain the same day as the Khalifah 'Usman.

SAHABI. fem. Sahabiyah. "An associate." One of the Monkey Happy Stage 567 of Muhammad. The number of persons entitled to this distinction at the time of Muhammad's death is said to have boon 144,000, the number Including all persons who had ever served as followers of the Prophet, and who had actually seen him. The general opinion being that one who embraced Islam, saw the Prophet and accompanied him, even for a short time, Monkey Happy Stage 567, is a Sahabi, or "associate." [ASHAB.]

SAHIBU 'N-NISAB. A legal term for one possessed of a certain estate upon which zakat, or "legal alms," must be paid. Also for one who has sufficient Mobil Tenis to enable him to offer the sacrifice on the great festival, or to F1de Kanada Grand Prixin Düzenlendiği Şehir the pilgrimage to Makkah. The possessor of 200 dirhems, or five camels, is held to be a Sahibu 'n-Nisab, as regards zakat.

SAHIBU 'Z-ZAMAN. "Lord of the Age." A title given by the Shi'ahs to the Imam Mahdi. (Ghiyusu 'l-Lughah, in loco.)

SAHIFAH., pl. suhuf. Lit. "A small book or pamphlet," A term generally used for the one hundred portions of scripture and said to have been given to Adam, Seth, Enoch, and Abraham, although It is used in the Qur'an Monkey Happy Stage 567 lxxxvii. 19) for the books of Abraham and Moses: "This is truly written in the books (suhuf) of old, the books (suhuf) of Abraham amid Moses.

SAHIFATU 'L - A'MAL.. The "Book of Actions," which is said to be made by the recording angels (Kiramu 'l-Katibin) of the deeds of men, and kept until the Day of Judgment, when the books are opened. See Qur'an :�

Surah 1. 16: "When two (angels) charged with taking account shall take it, one sitting on the right hand and another on the left."

Surah xvii. 14, 15: "And every man's fate have We (God) fastened about his neck; and on the Day of Resurrection will We bring forth to him a book, which shall be proffered to him wide open Read thy Book: There needeth none but thyself to make out an account against thee this day." [KIRAMU 'L-KATIBIN, RESURRECTION.]

SAHIHU 'L-BUKHARI. The title of the first of the Kutubu 's-Sittah, or "six correct" books of traditions received by the Sunnis. It was complied by Abu 'Abd 'llah Muhammad ibn Isma'il Bukhari, who was born at Bukhrah, A.H. 194, and died at Khartang, near Samarkand, A.H. 256. It contains 9,882 traditions, of which 2,628 are held to be of undisputed authority. They are arranged Into 160 books and 3,450 chapters. [TRADITIONS.]

SAHIHU MUSLIM. The title of the second of the Kutubu 's-Sittah, or" six correct" books of the traditions received by the Sunnis. It was compiled by Abu 'l-Husain Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj al-Qushairi, who was born at Naishapur, A.H. 204, and died A.H, Monkey Happy Stage 567. 261. The collection con-tame 7,275 traditions, of which, it is said 4,000 are of undisputed authority, Monkey Happy Stage 567. The books and chapters of the work were not arranged by the compiler, but by his disciples. The most celebrated edition of this work is that with a commentary by Muhylyu 'd-din Yahya an-Nawawi, who died A.H. 676. [TRADITIONS.]

SAHM.Lit. "An arrow used for drawing lots." A term in Muhammadan law for a portion of an estate allotted to an heir. (Hamilton's Hidiyah, vol. iv. p. 487.)

SAHUR. The meal which is taken before the dawn of day during the Ramazan. It is called in Persian Ta'am-i-Sahari. In Hindustani, Saharqahi. In Pushto Peshmani. [RAMAZAN.]

SAILBAH. Anything set at liberty, as a slave, or she-camel, and devoted to an idol. Mentioned once In the Qur'an, Surah v. 102: "God hath not ordained anything on the subject of sa'ibah, but the unbelievers have invented it."

SA'ID IBN ZAID. A Sahabi who embraced Islam in his youth. He was present with Muhammad in all his engagements except at Badr. He is held to be one of the 'Asharah Mubashsharah, or ten patriarchs of the Muslim faith, Monkey Happy Stage 567. Died at 'Aqiq, A.H. 51, aged 79.

SAIFU 'LLAH. "The Sword of God." A title given by Muhammad to the celebrated General Khalid ibn aI-Walid. Monkey Happy Stage 567 (Mishkat, book xxiv. ch. viii.)

SAIHUN. The river Jaxartes. Said to have been one of the rivers of Eden.

SAINTS. In Muhammadan countries, reputed saints are very numerous. Very many religious leaders obtain a great reputation for sanctity even before their deaths, but after death it is usual for the followers of any well-known religious teacher to erect a shrine over his grave, to light it up on Thursdays, and thus establish a saintly reputation for their departed guide. Very disreputable persons are thus often reckoned to have died in the "odor of sanctity." At Hasan Abdal in the Punjab (celebrated in


556

The story of Lala Rookh), there is a shrine erected over a departed cook ,who for many years lived Fernanfloo his peculations as keeper of the staging bungalow. When he died, about ten years ago, his family erected over his remains a shrine of some pretensions, which even in the present generation is an object of devout reverence, but which, in the next, will be the scene of reputed miracles. This is but an example of many thousands of shrines and saintly reputations easily gained throughout Islam.

It is generally asserted that according to the teachings of Islam, the Prophets (ambiya') were without sin, but there is a tradition, related by Anas, which distinctly asserts the contrary, and states that Muhammad not only admitted his own sinfulness, but also the fall of Adam, the murder committed by Moses, and the three lies told by Abraham. (See Mishkat, book xxiii, Monkey Happy Stage 567. ch. xii.) But it is very remarkable that, according to this Hadis, Muhammad does not charge Jesus Christ with having committed sin. The immaculate conception and the sinlessness of Chriat are admitted doctrine of Islam. [JESUS. CHRIST.]

The terms pir and wali are common titles for those who by reputed miracles and an ascetic life, have established a reputation for sanctity, for whom in Persian the title buzurg is generally used. The titles qutb and ghaus are very high orders of sanctity, whilst zahid and 'abid are employed for persons who devote their lives to religious contemplation and worship.

The Sufis use the word salik,"pilgrim" or Road to OZ for one who has renounced the world for the "path" of mysticism, whilst faqir is a title of more general application to one who is poor in the sight of God. Shaik and mir, used Monkey Happy Stage 567 old men, also express a degree of reputation in the religious world: shaik (in India) being a title generally conferred on a convert from Hinduism to Islam. Saiyid or "lord," is a. title always given to the descendants of Muhammad, mir being sometimes used for the same. Miyan, "master" or "friend," is generally used for the descendants of celebrated saints, or as a mere title of respect.

SA'IR. "A flaming fire." The special place of torment appointed for the Sabeans. (See aI-Baghawi's Commentary on the Qur'an) It. occurs sixteen times in the Qur'an (Surah iv. 11, and fifteen other places), where it does not seem to be applied to any special class.

SAIYIBAH. A legal term for a woman who departs from her husband, whether through divorce or the death of her husband, after the first connection.

SAIYID. A term used for the descendants of Muhammad from his daughter Fatimah by 'Ali. The word only occurs twice in the Qur'an � in Surah iii. 34, where it is used for John Baptist; and in Surah xii. 25, where it stands for the husband of Zalikhah. According to the Majmu 'l-Bihar, p. 151, it means "lord, king, exalted, saint, merciful, meek, husband," &c.

There are two branches of Saiyids - those descended from al-Hasan and those descended from al-Hussin (both the sons of 'Ali.)

These descendants of Muhammad are prayed for at every period of the daily prayers [PRAYERS], and they are held in all Muhammadan countries in the highest respect, however poor or degraded their position may be.

The term Saiyid is also given as a name to persons who are not descended from Muhammad, e.g. Saiyid Shah, Saiyid Amin, &e., Monkey Happy Stage 567, although it is a mere assumption, in addition Monkey Happy Stage 567 the term Saiyid, the term Badshah, Shah, Mir, and Sharif, are applied to those descended from Bibi Fatimah.

The author of the Akhlaq-i-Jalali estimated in his day the descendants of Muhammad to be not less than 200,000.

SAJDAH. vulg. sijdah. Lit. "Prostration,"

(1), The act of worship in which the person's forehead touches the ground in prostration. [PRAYER.]

(2) As-Safdah, the title of the xxxiind Surah of the Qur'an, in the 15th verse of which the word occurs: "They only believe in our signs who, when they are reminded of them, fall down adoring and celebrate the praises of their Lord."

SAJDATU 'S-SAHW. "The prostrations of forgetfulness." Two prostrations made on account of forgetfulness or inattention in prayer. Muhammad said, "When any of you stand up for prayer, and the devil comes to you and casts doubt and perplexity into your mind, so that you do not know bow many rak'ahs you have recited, then prostrate yourself twice.

SAJDATU 'SH-SHUKR. "A prostration of thanksgiving." When a Muslim has received some benefit Monkey Happy Stage 567 blessing, he is enjoined to make a prostration in the direction of Makkah, and say, "Holiness to God! and Praise be to God, There is no deity but God! God is most Great!" (Raddu 'l-Muhtar, vol i. p. 816.)

SAJJADAH. The small carpet, Monkey Happy Stage 567, mat, or cloth, on which the Muslim prays. [JAI-NAMAZ, MUSALLA.]

SAKHR. The jinn or devil who is said to have obtained possession of


557

Solomon's magic ring, and to have personated the King for forty days, when Sakhr flew away and threw the ring into the sea, where it was swallowed by a fish, which was afterwards caught and brought to Solomon, who by this means recovered his kingdom.

AS-SAKHRAH. "The Rock." The sacred rock at Jerusalem on which the Temple was erected, and on which now stands the Qubbata 's-Sakhrah, the "Dome of the Rock," known to English readers as the Mosque of 'Umar. This rock is said to have come from Paradise, and to be the foundation stone of the world, to have been the place of prayer of all prophets, and, next to the Ka'bah, the most sacred spot in the universe. Imam Jalalu 'd-din as Suyuti, in his history of the Temple of Jerusalem (Reynold's edition, p. 44), gives the following traditional account of the glorious Sakhrah.

"We are informed by lbn al-Mansar that the Rock of the Baitu 'l-Muqaddas, in the days of Solomon, was of the height. of twelve thousand cubits; each cubit at that time being the full cubit, viz, one modern cubit, one span and one hand-breadth. Upon it also was a chapel, formed of aloes (or sandal) wood, in height twelve miles (sic); also above this was a network of gold, between two eyelet-beads of pearl and ruby, netted by the women of Balka in the night, which net was to serve for three days; also the people of Emmaus were under the shadow of' the chapel when the sun rose and the people of

Baitu 'r-Rahmah when it set, and even others of the valleys were under its shadow; also upon it was a jacinth (or ruby), which shone in the night like the light of the sun ; but when the light began to dawn its brilliancy was obscured; nor did all these cease until Nebuchadnezzar laid all waste, and seized whatever he found there, and carried it into Greece.

"Again, by a tradition we learn that the Sakhrah of Baitu 'l-Muqaddas was raised aloft into the sky, to the height of twelve miles, and. the space between it and heaven was no more than twelve miles. All this Monkey Happy Stage 567 in the same state until Greece (or Rome) obtained the mastery over it, subsequent to its devastation by Nebuchadnezzar, Monkey Happy Stage 567. But when the Greeks obtained possession of it, they said, "Let us build thereupon a building far excelling that which was there before." Therefore they built upon it a building as- broad at the base as it was high in the sky, and gilded it with gold and silvered it with silver. Then, entering


558

therein, they began to practise their associating paganism, upon which it turned upside-down over them, so that not one of them came out.

"Therefore, when the Grecian (king) saw this, be summoned the Patriarch and his ministers (deacons), and the chiefs of Greece, and said, 'What think ye?' who replied, 'we are of opinion that our idol-gods are not well pleased, and therefore will not receive us favourably.' Hereupon he commanded a second temple to be built, which they did, spending a great sum thereon, and having finished the second building, seventy-thousand entered it as they had entered the first. But it happened to them as it had happened to the first; when they began their Paganism it turned over upon them.' Now their king was not with them, Monkey Happy Stage 567. Therefore, when he saw this, he assembled them a third time, and said unto them, "What think ye?' who said, 'We think that our Lord is not well pleased with us, because we have not offered unto him abundantly; therefore he has destroyed what we have done, therefore we should greatly wish to build a third.' They then built a. third, until they thought they had carried it to the greatest possible height, which having done, he Monkey Happy Stage 567 the Christians, and said unto them, 'Do ye observe any defect?' who said, 'None, except that we must surround it with crosses of gold and silver.' Then all the people entered it, to read and cite (sacred things) having bathed and perfumed themselves, and having entered it, they began to practise their associating Paganism, as the others had done before them;- whereupon down fell the third building upon them. Hereupon the king again summoned them together, and asked their counsel about what he should do, Monkey Happy Stage 567. But their dread was very great; and whilst they were deliberating, there came up to them a very old man, in a white robe and a black turban; his back was bent double and he was leaning upon a staff. So he said, 'O, Christian people, listen to me! listen to me! for I am - the oldest of any of you in years, and have now come forth from among the retired votaries of religion, in order to inform you that, with respect to this place, all its possessors are accursed, and all holiness hath departed from it, and hath been transferred to this (other) place. I will therefore point out this as the place wherein to build the Church of the Resurrection. I will show you the spot, but you will never see me after this day, for ever, Monkey Happy Stage 567. Do, therefore, with a good will that which I shall tell you.' Thus he cheated them, and augmented their accursed state, and commanded them to cut up the rock, and to build with its stones upon the place which he commended them.

" So whilst he was talking with them he became concealed; and they saw him no more. Thereupon they increased in their infidelity, and said, 'This is the Great Word. Then they demolished the Mosques, and carried away the columns and the stones, and all the rest, and built therewith the Church of the Resurrection, and the church which is in the valley of Hinnon. Moreover, this cursed old man commanded them, 'When ye have finished their building upon this place, then, take that place whose owners are accursed, and, whence all holiness hath departed, to be a common sewer to receive your dung.' By this they gratified their Lord. Also they did this, as follows: At certain seasons, all the filth and excrement was sent in vessels - from Constantinople, and was at a certain time all thrown upon the Rock, until God awoke our Prophet Muhammad (the peace and blessing of God be with him!), and, Monkey Happy Stage 567, brought him by night thereunto; which he did on account of its peculiar consecration, and on account of the greatness of its super-excellence. We learn, also, that God, on the Day of Judgment, will change the Sakrah into white coral, enlarging it to extend over heaven and earth. Then shall men go from that Rook to heaven or hell, according to that great word, 'There shall be a time when this earth shall change into another earth, and the heaven shall turn white; the soil shall be of silver; no pollution shall ever dwell thereon.' - Now from 'A'ish (may the satisfying favour of God rest upon him!), I said, 'O apostle of God, on that day when this earth shall become another earth, and this sky shall change, where shall men be on that day?' He replied, 'Upon the bridge as-Sirat.' Again, a certain divine says, 'that in the Law, God says to the Rock of the Holy Abode, "Thou art my seat; thou art near to me; from thy foundation have I raised up the heavens, and from beneath thee have I stretched forth the earth and all the distant inaccessible mountains are beneath thee. Who dies with thee is as if he died within the world of heaven, and who dies around thee is as if he died within thee. Days and nights shall not cease to succeed, until I send down upon thee a Light of Heaven, which shall obliterate all the (traces) of the infidels of the sons of Adam, and all their footsteps. Also I will send upon thee the hierarchy of angels and prophets; and I will wash thee until I leave thee like milk; and I will fix upon thee a wall - twelve miles above the thick-gathering clouds of earth, and also a hedge, of light. By my hand will I insure to thee thy support and thy virtue; upon thee will I cause to descend my spirits and my angels, to worship within thee; nor shall any one of the sons of Adam enter within thee until the Day of Judgment. And whosoever shall look upon this chapel from afar shall say, 'Blessed be the face of him who devoutly worships and adores in thee!' Upon thee will I place walls of light and a hedge of thick clouds � five walls of ruby and pearl." Also from the Book of Psalms, 'Great and glorious art thou, thou threshing-floor! Unto thee shall be the general assemblage: from thee shall all men rise from death.' Moreover, from the same author, God says to the Rock of Holy Abode, 'who loveth thee, him will


559

I love; who loveth thee, loveth me, who hateth thee, him will I hate. From year to year my eyes are upon thee, nor will I forget thee until I forget my eyes. Whoso prayeth within thee two rak'ahs, him will I cause to cast off all his sins, and to be as guiltless as I brought him from his mother's womb, unless he return to his sins, beginning them, afresh.' This is also a tradition of old standing: I solemnly Monkey Happy Stage 567 and promise to everyone who dwells therein, that: all the days of his life the bread of corn and olive-oil never shall fail him; nor shall the days and the nights fail to bring that time, when, out of the supremacy of my bounty, I will cause to descend upon thee the assemblage of man for judgment � the whole company of then mortals.' There is a tradition that 'Muqatil ibn Sulaiman came to this Temple to pray, and sat by the gate looking towards the Rock; and we had assembled there in great numbers; he was reading and we were listening. Then came forward 'Ali ibn al-Baidawi, stamping terribly with his slippers upon the pavement. This greatly afflicted him, and he said to those around him, "Make an opening for me." Then the people opened on each side, Monkey Happy Stage 567, and be made a threatening motion with his hand to warn him and prevent this stamping, saying, "Tread more gently! That place at which Muqatil is "�pointing with his hand �"and on which thou art stamping, is the very place redolent of heaven's breezes; and there is not a spot all around it � not a spot within its precincts a hand's-breadth square � "wherein some commissioned prophet, some near angel, hath not prayed." Now from the mother of 'Abdu 'llah, daughter of Khalid, from her mother, 'the moment is surely fixed, when the Ka'bah shall be led as a bride to the Sakhrah, and shall hang upon her all her pilgrimage merits, and become her turban.' Also it is said that the Sakhrah is the middle of the Mosque; it is cut off from every touching substance on all sides. No one supports it but He who supports and holds up the sky; so that nothing falls thence but by His good permission ; also upon the upper part of the west side stood the Prophet (the blessing and peace of God be with him!) on the night when he rode al-Baraq. This side began to shake about, from veneration of him; and upon the other side are the marks of the angels' fingers, who held it up when it shook; beneath it is a deep hole cut out on each side, over which is the gate opened to men for prayer and devotion 'I resolved,' says a certain author, ' one day to enter, it, in great fear lest I should fall upon me, on account of the sins I had contracted; Then however, looked, and saw its darkness, and some holy pilgrims entering it at the darkest part, who came forth therefrom quite free from sin. Then I began to reflect upon entering. Then I said, "Perhaps they entered very slowly gerçek parali casino oyunlari leisurely, and I was too much in a hurry, a little delay may facilitate the matter." Monkey Happy Stage 567 So I made up my mind to enter, and entering, I saw the Wonder of Wonders, the Rock supported in its position or course on every sides for I saw it separated from the earth, Monkey Happy Stage 567, so that no point of the earth touched it. Some of the sides were separated by a wider interval than others; also, the mark of the glorious Foot is at present in a stone divided from the Rock, right over against it, on the other side, west of the Qiblah, it is upon a pillar. Also the Rock is now almost abutting upon the side of the crypt, only divided from it by that space which allows room for the gate of the crypt on the side of the Qiblah. This gate, also, is disjointed from the base of the Qiblah; it is between the two. Below the gate of the crypt is stone staircase, whereby one may descend into the crypt In the midst of this crypt Is a dark-brown loather carpet, upon which pilgrims stand when they visit the foundation of the Rock, it is upon the eastern side. There are also columns of marble abutting on the lower side upon the path of the rows of trees upon the side of the Qiblah, and on the other side forming buttresses to the extremity of the Rock; these are to hinder it from shaking on the side of the Qiblah. There are buildings besides these, Monkey Happy Stage 567. There Monkey Happy Stage 567 a buiding in the Chapel of the Rock. Beneath the chapel, Monkey Happy Stage 567, the spot marked by the angels' fingers is in the Rook, on the western side, divided from the print of the glorious Foot above mentioned, very near to it, over against the western gate, at the end.' (Hist Jerusalem, from the Arabic MS. of Jalalu 'd-din as-Suyuti, Reynolds' ed. 1885)

Dr Robinson (Biblical Researches, vol. 1 p. 297) says the followers of Muhammad under 'Umar took possession of the Holy City in 636, and the Khalifah determined to erect a mosque upon the site of the Jewish Temple. An account of this undertaking, as given by Muslim historians, will be found in the article on JERUSALEM. The historians of the crusades all speak of this great Sakhrab as the Templum Domini, and describe its form and the rook within it (Will. Ttyr, 8,2tb 12,7 Jac.deVitriac,c 82.)

Lieut E. R. Conder, R.E, remarks that the Dome of the Rock belongs to that obscure period of Sarscenic art, when the Arabs had not yet created an architectural style of their own, and when they were in the habit of employing Byzantine architects to build their mosques. The Dome of the Rock, Lient. Conder says, is not a mosque, as it is sometimes wrongly called, but a "station" in the outer court of the Masjidu 'l-Aqsa.

We are indebted to this writer for the following account of the gradual growth of the present budding (Tent Work in Palestine, vol ii p. 820):-

"In A.D. 881 the Caliph El Mamun restored the Dome of the Rock, and, if I am correct, enclosed it with an outer wall, and gave it its present appearance. The beams in the roof of the arcade bear, as above stated, Monkey Happy Stage 567, the date 913 A.D. a well-carved wooden cornice, hidden by the present ceiling, must then have be invisible beneath them.

"In 1016 A.D. the building was partly destroyed by earthquake. To this date


560

belong restorations of the Monkey Happy Stage 567 mosaics in the dome, as evidenced by inscriptions. The present wood-work of the cupola was erected by Husein, son of the Sultan Hakem, as shown by an inscription, dated 1022 A.D.

"The place next fell Monkey Happy Stage 567 the hands of the Crusaders, who christened it Templum Domini, and established in 1112 AD. a chapter of Canons.

"The Holy Rock was, then cut into its present shape and covered with marble slabs, an altar being erected on it. The works were carried on from 1115 A.D. to I 1136 A. D. The beautiful iron grille between the pillars of the dome and various fragments of carved work are of this date, including small altars with sculptured capitals, having heads upon them - abominations to the Moslem, yet still preserved within its' precincts. The interior of the outer wall was decorated in the twelfth century with frescoes, traces of which still remain. The exterior of the same wall is surmounted by a parapet, with dwarf pillars and arches, which is first mentioned by John of Wurtzburg, but must he as old as the round arches of the windows below. The Crusaders would seem to have filled up the parapet arches, and to have ornamented the whole with glass mosaic, as at Bethlehem.

"In 1187 A.D. Saladin won the city, tore up the altar, and once more exposed the bare rock covered up the frescoes with marble slabs Monkey Happy Stage 567 restored and regilded the dome, as evidenced by an inscription in it dating 1189 A.D.

"In 1318 A.D. the lead outside and the gilding within were restored by Nakr ed Din, as evidenced by an inscription.

"In I520 A.D, Monkey Happy Stage 567. the Sultan Soliman cased the bases and upper blocks of the columns with marble. The wooden cornice, attached to the beam between the pillars, seems to be of this period, and the slightly-pointed marble casing of the arches under the dome is probably of the same date. The windows bear inscriptions of 1528 A.D. The whole exterior was at this time covered with Eishani tiles, attached by copper hooks, as evidenced by inscriptions dated 1561 A.D. The doors were restored in 1564 A.D, as also shown by inscriptions.

"The date of the beautiful wooden ceding of the cloisters is not known but it partly covers the Cufic inscription, and this dates 72 A.H. (688 A.D.), and it hides the wooden Cornice, dating probably 913 A.D. The ceiling is therefore probably of the time of Soilman.

"In 1830 A.D. the Sultan Mahmud, and in 1873-75 A.D. the late Abdu 'I Aziz, repaired the Dome, and the latter period was one specially valuable for those who wished to Study the history of the place.

"Such is a plain statement of the gradual growth of the building. The dates of the various inscriptions on the walls fully agree with the circumstantial accounts of the Arab writers who describe the Dome of the Rock." [JERUSALEM.]

SAKINAH. A word which occurs in the Qur'an five times. (1) For that which was in the Ark of the Covenant, Surah ii. 249: "The sign of his (Saul's) kingdom is that there shall come to you the Ark (Tabut) with the sakinah in it from your Lord, and the relics that the family of Moses and the family of Aaron left, and the angels bear it." With reference to this verse, Monkey Happy Stage 567, al-Baizawi, the great Muslim commentator. says: "The ark here mentioned is the box containing the Books of Moses (Arabic Taurat, namely, the Torah, or Law), which was made of box-wood and gilded over with gold, and was three cubits long and two wide; and in it was the sakinah from your Lord. The meaning of which is, that with the Ark there was tranquility and peace, namely. the Taurat (Books of Moses), because when Moses went forth to war he always took the Ark with him, which gave repose to the hearts of the children of Israel. But, some say that within that Ark there was an idol made either of emerald or sapphire, with the head and tail of a cat, and with two wings; and that this creature made a noise when the Ark was carried forth to war. But others say that the Ark contained images of the prophets, from Adam to Moses. Others assert that the meaning of sakinah is knowledge and sincerity.' Others, that the Ark contained the Monkey Happy Stage 567 of the Law, the rod of Moses, and Aaron's turban." (Tafsiru 'I-Baizawi, Fleischer's ed., vol. ii Sovyetlere Karşı Savaşan Düzensiz Afgan Askeri. 128.)

(2) ft is also used in the Qur'an for help and confidence or trace. Surah xlviii 26: "When those who misbelieved put in their hearts pique � the pique of ignorance � and God sent down His Sakinah upon His Apostle and upon the believers, and obliged them to keep to the word of piety." Al-Baizawi says that in this verse the word sakinah means the tranquility and repose of soul, which is the meaning given in all Arabic dictionaries.

The word occurs in three other places in a similar sense:-

Surah ix. 26: "God sent down His Sakinah upon His Apostle and upon the believers, and sent down armies which ye could not see, and punished those who did not believe."

Surah ix. 40: "God sent down His Sakinah upon him, and aided him with hosts."

Surah xlviii. 2: "It is He who sent down the sakinah into the hearts of believers, Monkey Happy Stage 567, that they might have faith added to faith."

None of the Muslim commentators seem to understand that the ArabicSakinah is identical with the Hebrew Shechinuh, a term which, Monkey Happy Stage 567, although not found in the Bible, has been used by the latter Jews, and borrowed by the Christians from them, to express the visible Majesty of the Divine Presence, especially when resting or dwelling between the Cherubin on the Mercy Seat in the Tabernacle, and in the Temple of Solomon. Rabbinical writers identify the


561

Shechinah with the Holy Spirit and some Christian writers have thought that the three-fold expression for the Deity � the Lord, the Word of the Lord, and the Shechinah - indicates the knowledge of a trinity of persons in the God-head.

For the Talmudic views regarding the Shechinah, the English reader can refer to Dr. Hershon's Talmudic Miscellany (Tr�bner & Co., London).

SALAF.Ancestors; men of repute for piety arid faith in past generations.

(2) Money lent without interest. [SALAM.]

SALAM.. A contract involving an immediate payment of the price, and admitting a delay in the delivery of the articles purchased. The word used in the Hadis is generally salaf. In a sale of this kind, the seller is called musallam ilai-hi; the purchaser, rabbu 's-salam, and the goods purchased, musallam-fi-hi. (Kitabu 't- Ta'rifat.)

AS-SALAM.. "The Peace(ful) one. (1) One of the ninety-nine names or attributes of God. It occurs once in the Qur'an, Surah lix. 20: "He is God, than whom there is no other. . the Peaceful." Al-Baizawi explains the word as "He who is free from all loss or harm" .

(2) As-Salaum 'alai-kum "The peace be on you," the common salutation amongst Muslims. [SALUTATION.]

AS-SALAT. in construction frequently spelled pl. salawat. The term used in the Qur'an, as well as amongst all Muslims in every part of the world, for the liturgical form or prayer, which is recited five times a day, an account of which is given in the article on PRAAYER. Its equivalent in Persian and Urdu is namaz, which has been corrupted into nmuz by the Afghans. The word occurs with this meaning in the Qur'an, Surah ii. Dedektif Vandan "Observe the prayers," and in very many other places. It has also the meaning of prayer or supplication in its general sense, e.g. Surah ix. 104: "Pray for them, of a truth thy prayers shall assure their minds." Also blessing, e.g. Surah xxxiii. 56: "Verily God and His Angels bless (not "pray for," as rendered by Palmer) the Prophet." (See Lane's Dictionary, in loco.)

The word salat occurs with various combinations used to express different periods, and also special occasions of prayer.

The five stated liturgical prayers which are held to be of divine institution:�

(1) Salatu 'l-Zuhr, the meridian prayer.
(2) Salatu 'l-Asr, Monkey Happy Stage 567, the afternoon prayer.
(3) Salatu 'l.Maghrib the sunset prayer.
(4) Salatu 'l-'Isha', the night prayer.
(5) Salatu 'l-Fajr, the prayer at dawn.

(Obs. The midday prayer is reckoned the first in order.)

Also for the three voluntary daily liturgical prayers:-

1. Salatu 'l-Ishraq, when the sun has well risen.
2. Salatu 'l-Zuha, about 11 A.M.
3. Salatu 'l-Zahahud, after midnight.

Liturgical prayers said on special occasion are given below. [PRAYER.]

SALATU 'L-HAJAH." Prayer of necessity." Four rak'ah prayers, or, according to some twelve rak'ahs recited after the night prayer in times of necessity, or trouble. (Raddu 'l-Muhtar, vol. i. p. 719.)

SALATU 'L-'IDAIN.."Prayers of the two festivals. The two rak'ah prayers recited on the two Muhammadan festivals, the 'Idu 'l-Fitr and the 'Ida 'l-Azha.

SALATU 'L-ISTIKHARAH.Lit. " Prayer for conciliating favor." Two rak'ahs recited for success in an undertaking. Jabir relates that Muhammad taught him Istikharah, and that after reciting two rak'ahs he should thus supplicate God. "O God, I seek Thy good help in Thy great wisdom. I pray for ability to act through Thy power. I ask this things of thy goodness. Thou knowes, but I know not. Thou art powerful, but I am not. Thou art knower of secrets. O God, if Thou knowest, that, the matter which I am about to undertake is good for my religion, for my life, for my future, then make it easy, and prosper me in it. But if it is bad for my religion, my life, and my future, then put it away from me, and show me what is good. (Mishkat, book iv. 40.)

SALATU 'L-ISTISQA'. from saqy, "Watering." Two rak'ah prayers recited in the time of dearth.

SALATU 'L-JINAZAII. The funeral service. [BURIAL OF THE DEAD, JINAZAH.]

SALATU 'L-JUM'AH.Lit. "The prayer of assembly." The Friday Prayer. It consists of two rak'ahs recited at the time of Monkey Happy Stage 567, or midday prayer on Friday. [FRIDAY, KHUTBAH.]

SALATU 'L-KHAUF. The "Prayers of Fear." Two rak'ahs of prayers recited first by one regiment and then by another in time of war, when the usual prayers cannot be recited for fear of the enemy. These prayers are founded upon an injunction in the Qur'ani, Surah iv. 102: "And when ye go to war in the land, it shall be no sin for you to curtail Monkey Happy Stage 567 prayers, if ye fear that the enemy come upon you?" This was also the Talmudic law (Tr. Beraehoth iv, Monkey Happy Stage 567. 4); "He that goeth in a dangerous place may pray a short Monkey Happy Stage 567

SALATU 'L-KHUSUF.. Prayers said at an eclipse of the moon, consisting of two rak'ahs of Prayer. (Mishkat.)


562

SALATU 'L-KUSUF. Prayers at an eclipse of the sun, consisting of two rak'ahs of prayer. (Mishkat, book jy ch. ii)

SALATU 'L-MARIZ. "Prayer of the sick." When a person is too sick to stand up in the usual prayers, is allowed to recite them either in a reclining or sitting posture, provided he performs the usual ablutions. It is ruled that he shall in such a case make the prostrations. &c mentally. (Raddu 'l Muhtar. vol i. p. 891.)

SALATU L-WITR. The Witr prayers. The word witr means either a unit, or an odd number and as used for either a single or odd number of rack'ah prayers recited after the evening prayer ('isha). Mishkat, book iv. Ch. xxxvi.)

There is considerable controversy amongst the learned doctors as to whether it is farz, wajib, of sunnah, but it is generally held to be sunnah, i.e. founded on the example of the Prophet, but with no divine command. Amongst the Hanafi sect, it is also known as Qunutu 'l-Witr, but the Shafi'is recite the Qunut separately.

SALATU 'R-RAQHA'IB. "A prayer for things desired." Two rak'ah prayers recited by one who desires some object In this world. According to the orthodox, it is forbidden in Islam. (Raddu 'l-Muthar, vol. i. p 717.) it is recited by some persons in the first week of the month Rajab.

SALATU 'S-SAFAR. "Prayers of travel." A shortened recital of prayer allowed to travellers. It is founded on a tradition by Ya'la ibn Umaiyah who says, "I said to Umar, 'God hath said; "When ye go so war in the land it shall be no sin for you to shorten your prayers it ye fear that Monkey Happy Stage 567 infidels way attack you"; but now verily we are safe in this journey, and yet we shorten our prayers.' Umar replied, I also wondered at the thing that astonished you but the Prophet said, God hath done you a kindness in curtailing your prayers, therefore accept it, Monkey Happy Stage 567, Ibn 'Umar says, 'I traveled with the Prophet, and he did not say more than two rak'ahs of prayer, and Abu Bakr and 'Urnar and Usman did the same.' lbn 'Abbas says, 'The Prophet used to say on a journey the noon and afternoon prayer together, and the sunset and evening prayer together'" (Mishkat, book iv. Ch. xlii.)

The established prayers for a traveller are, therefore two rak'ahs instead of the four farz rak'ahs at the noon and afternoon and evening prayers, and the usual two form at the morning and the usual three farz at the sunset prayers, all voluntary prayers being omitted (Raddu 'l-Muhtar, vol. i. p. 821.)

SALATU 'T-TARAWIH. "Prayer of rest." So called because of the pause or rest made for ejaculations between every four rak'ahs. ('Abaa l'-Haqq.)

Twenty rak'ah prayers recited after the night prayer during the month of Ramazan. They are often followed with recitations known as zitkrs [ZIKR.], and form an exciting service of devotion. The Imam recite the Tarawik prayers with a loud voice.

Abu Hurairah says "The Prophet used to encourage people to say night prayers in Ramazan without ordering them positively, and would say. He who stands up in prayer at night for the purpose of obtaining reward, will have all his sins pardoned'; then the Prophet died, leaving the prayers of Ramazan in this way." It is said 'Umar instituted the present custom of reciting the twenty rak'ahs. (Mishkat, book iv ch, Monkey Happy Stage 567. xxxviii.) [RAMAZAN.]

SALATU T-TASBIH. "Prayer of praise." A form of prayer founded on the following tradition related by lbn Abbas who says:�

"Verily the Prophet said to my father, 'O Abbas! O my uncle! shall I not give to you shall I not present unto you, shall I not inform you of a thing which covers acts of sin? When you perform it, God will forgive your sins, your former sins, and your latter sins, and those sins which you did unknowingly, and those which you did knowingly, your great sins, and your small sins, Monkey Happy Stage 567, your disclosed sins and your concealed sins? It is this namely, that you recite four rak'ahs of prayer, and in each rak'ah recite the Falihhim 'l-Kitab, (i.e. the Introductory chapter of the Qur'an). and some other Surah of the Qur'an; and when you have recited these portions of the Qur'an in the position of Qiyam, then say, " Holiness to God! (Sub hana 'llahi), and Praise be to God ! " (Wa hana 'llahi), and "There is no deity but God!" (Wa la Ilaha 'illa huwa), and "God is most great!" (Wa 'llahu Akbar), fifteen times. Then perform a ruku and recite it ten times; then raise up your head and say it ten times, then make the sajdah and say it ten times; then raise your head and say it ten times, then make another sajdah and say it ten times, then raise your head again and say it ten times: altogether seventy-five times to every rak'ah; and do thus in each of the rak'ah. If you are able to say this form of prayer every day, then do so, but If not, do it once every Friday, and if not each week then say it once a month, and it not once a month, then say it once a year, and if not once a year, than do it once in your sometime.'" (Mishkat, book Monkey Happy Stage 567. ch. xl.)

The foregoing is a striking illustration of the mechanical character of the Muslim religion as regards its system of devotion [ZIRR.]

SALE, Monkey Happy Stage 567, The Law of. [BAJ'.]

SALIB. "A crucifix; a cross." [CROSS.]

SALIH. A prophet mentioned in the Qur'an (Surah vii, Monkey Happy Stage 567. 71). who was sent to the tribes of 'Ad and Samud. Al-


563

Baizawi say he was the son of 'Ubaid, the sun of Asaf, the soni of Masih the son of ~ 'Ubaid, the son of Hazir, the son of Samud. Bochant thinks he must be the Pileg of Genesis xi 16. D'Herbelot,makes him the Salah of Genesis xi.

The following is the account of him in the Qur'an with the commentator's remarks in In italics (see Lane's Selections Monkey Happy Stage 567 ed by Mr. Stanley Lane Poole):�

And We sent unto the tribe of Thamud their brother Salih. He said, O my people worship God. Ye have no other deity but Him, Monkey Happy Stage 567. A miraculous proof of my veracityshall come unto you from your Lord, this camel of God being a sign unto you [He had caused her at her demand to cohns forth from the heart of a rock]. Therefore let her feed, in God's earth and do herein no harm lest a painful punishment seize you vicregent in the earth. after [the tribe off] given you a habitation in the earth ye make yourselves, on its plains, Monkey Happy Stage 567, pavilions therein ye dyed in Monkey Happy Stage 567, and cut the mountains into houses wherein ye dwell in winter. Remember then the benefits of God, and do not evil in the earth acting corruptly - The chiefs who were elated with pride among his people, said unto those who were esteemed weak, namely, to those who had believed among them. Do ye know that Salih hath been sent unto this? And they hamstrung the she-camel (Kuddr [the son of Salih] ,doing so by their order and slaying her with the sword) and they impiously transgressed the command of their Lord, and said, O Salih, bring upon us that punishment with which that treatment us for killing her, if thou be [one] of the apostles. And the violent convulsion (a year earthquake and a cry from heaven) assailed them, and In the morning they were in their dwellings prostrate and dead. So he turned away from them, and said, O my people I have brought unto you the message of my Lord and given you faithful counsel but ye loved not faithful conssellors." Surah vii 71- 77)

SALIK.Lit. "A traveler." A term used by the mystics for devotee, or one who has started on the heavenly journey. [SUFI.]

SALSABIL.Lit. The softly flowing. A fountain in Paradise, mentioned in the 'Qur an in Surah lxxvi. 10 and from which the Muslims in heaven are said to drink. "A spring therein named Salsabit, and there shall go round about them immortal boys"

SALUTATIONS. Arabic as-salam, "peace" Taslim, Heb. shalom, the act of giving the prayer-of peace pl. taslimat. The duty of giving and returning a salutation is founded or ex-press injunctions in the Qur'an.

Surah xxix. 61 "When ye enter houses then greet each other with a salutation from God the Blessed and the good."

Surah iv. 88 "When ye are saluted with a salutation, salute ye with a better than it, or return the same salutation.

'Ali says that Muhammad established it as an incumbent duty that one Muslim should salute another. [FITRAH.] 'The ordinary salutation of the Muslim is "as-Salamu 'alaskum," i.e. The peace upon you" And, the usual reply is Wo 'Alai kum as salam or And upon you also be the peace.

The supposes origin of the salutation is given in a tradition by Abu Hurariah and relates that the Prophet said.

God created Adam, Monkey Happy Stage 567, and his stature was sixty cubits; and God said to Adam, Go and salute that party of angels who are sitting down, and listen to their answers for verily it shall be the salacious and reply for you and your children! Adam then went and said to the angels 'as Salamu alai-kum, Monkey Happy Stage 567, i.e. 'The peace be on you,'" and the angels replied, 'as-Salamu 'alsika wa rahmatu 'llah,' - i.e. 'The peace be on thee, and the mercy of God.'"

This form is now usually given in reply by devout persons (Sahihu ' Bukhari p. 919)

Muhammad instructed his people as follows regarding he use of the salutation;�

The person riding must salute one on foot, and he who is walking must salute those who are sitting, and the small must salute the larger, and the person of higher degree the lesser. It is therefore a religious duty for the person of high degree, when meeting one of a lower degree; the giving of the Salam being regarded as a benediction. For," says Mohammad, "the nearest people to God are those who salute first. When a party is passing, it is sufficient if one of them give the salutation and, in like manner, it is sufficient one of the party return it of those sitting down."

The Jews in the time of Muhammad seem to have made the salutation a annoyance to Muhammad for it is related when they went to the Prophet they used to say, "'As sammu 'alai-ka, "On you be poison." to which the Prophet always replied," Wa alai ko," 'And on you."

Uramah ibn Zaid says: "The Prophet once praised a mixed assembly of Muslims, polytheists, idolaters, and Jews, and, Monkey Happy Stage 567, he gave the salutation; but he meant it only for the Muslims."

Jarir relates that on one occasion the Prophet met a party of women, and gave them the salutation, But this is contrary to the usual practice of Muhammadans; and 'Abdu l-Haqq, in his commentary on this tradition, says This practice was peculiar to the Prophet, for the laws of Islam forbid a man saluting a woman unless she is old."

In the East it is usual to raise the right hand (the raising of the left hand being disrespectful, as it is the hand used for legal ablutions) when giving the Salam, but this custom, common though it be is not an


564

cordance with the traditions. For 'Amr ibn Shu'aib relates, from his fore-fathers, that the Prophet said, Monkey Happy Stage 567, "He is not of us who likens himself to another. Do not copy the Jews or the Christians in your salutation. For a Jew's salutation is by raising his fingers, and the Christians salute with the palm of the hand. (Mishkat, book xxxi. ch. 1.)

In Central Asia, the salutation is generally given without any motion of the body, in accordance with the above tradition.

SALVATION. The Arabic word najat, "salvation," only occurs once in the Qur'an, namely, Surah xl. 44: "O my people! how is it that I bid you to salvation, but that ye bid me to the fire?" Nor is the word generally used in Muslim works of divinity, Monkey Happy Stage 567, although the orthodox sect of Muslims claims for itself the title of Naji-yah, or those who are being saved, Monkey Happy Stage 567.

The word maghfirah, "forgiveness," is frequently used in the Qur'an to express that Christians understand by "salvation"; also Islam, Iman, and Din, words which express the idea of a state of salvation.

According to Islam, a man obtains salvation by a recital of the Kalimah, or creed; but if he be an evil doer, he will suffer the pains of a purgatorial fire until his sins are atoned for; whilst he who has not accepted the Muslim creed will endure the pains of everlasting punishment, Monkey Happy Stage 567. Monkey Happy Stage 567

AS-SAMAD.. "The Eternal." One of the ninety-nine names or attributes of God. It occurs once in the Qur'an, Surah cxii.; God the Eternal."

In its original meaning, it implies a lord, because one repairs to him, in exigencies; or when applied, to God, because affairs are stayed or rested on Him. Hence, according to al-Mukham, in loco, and the Lisanu 'l-'Arab, it signifies the Being that continues for ever� the Eternal One.

SAMARAH. [BENEFICENCE.]

SAMARITAN. [AS-SAMIRI.]

AS-SAMI'.. "The Hearer." ,One of the ninety-nine names or attributes of God, The word frequently occurs in the Qur'an.

AS-SAMIRI.. Mentioned in the Qur'an (Surah xx. 87: "As-Samiri has led them astray") as the person who made the golden calf for the Children of Israel. In Professor Palmer's translation, it Çöpe Basket Atma Oyunu tendered "the Samaritan," which. is according. to al-Baizawi, who says his name was Musa ibn Zafar, of the tribe of Samaritans. [MOSES.]

SAMUEL. Arabic Ishmawil or Shamwil, Heb. referred to in the Qur'an (surah ii. 247) as "the prophet" to whom the Children of Israel said, "Raise for us a King, and we will fight for him in God's way."

Husain, the commentator, says it is not quite certain who he was. He was either Yusha' ibn Nun, or Sham'an ibn Safiya, or Ishmawil. (Tafsir-i-Husaini, p. 65.)

The Kamalan give his name as Shamwil, but say it was originally Isma'il, and that Monkey Happy Stage 567 meaning is the same.

SAN'A'.. A city in al-Yaman, the Viceroy of which, Abrahatu 'l- Ashram, an Abyssinian Monkey Happy Stage 567, marched with a large army and some elephants upon Makkah, with the intention of destroying the Temple (see Qur'an, Surah cv.) in the year Muhammad was born. Hence the year was known as that of the Elephant.

SANAD.. Lit. "That on which one rests, as a pillar or cushion." An authority; a document; a warrant. A term used in Muslim law.

SANAM. pl, Monkey Happy Stage 567. asnam. The word used in the Qur'an for an idol, e.g. Surah xiv. 38: "Turn me and my sons away from serving idols." [IDOLS.]

SANCTUARY. The Prophet forbade putting a murderer to death in a mosque, but he may be taken by force from the mosque and slain outside the building. The same rule applies to persons guilty of theft. (Mishkat, Monkey Happy Stage 567 iv. ch. viii.)

The custom of sanctuary was derived from the Levitical law of refuge. The six cities being established as cities of refuge for the involuntary manslayer. - The altar of burnt offerings was also a place of refuge for those who bad undesignedly committed smaller offences. (Deut, Monkey Happy Stage 567. xix. 11. 12; Joshua xx.) According to Leeky (Europian Morals, Monkey Happy Stage 567, vol, ii. p. 42), the right of sanctuary was possessed. by the imperial statues and by the Pagan temples. Bingham (Antiquities, vol. ii. p. 554) says it seems to have been introduced into the Christian Church by Constantine.

SANDALS. [SHOES.] Monkey Happy Stage 567 src="https://www.answering-islam.org/Books/Hughes/img/564k.jpg"> "A. scorching heat." According to the commentator, al-Baghawi it is the special division of hell set apart for the Magi. It is mentioned thus in the Qur'an Surah liv. 48: ." Taste ye the touch of saqar."

Surah lxxiv. 26: "I will broil him in saqar! And what shall make thee know what saqar is?" it leaveth nought and spareth nought, blackening the skin of man.

SARACEN. A term used by Christian writers for the followers of Muhammad, and applied not only to the Arabs, Monkey Happy Stage 567, but to the Turks and other Muslim nations.

There is much uncertainty as to the origin of this word. The word was used by Monkey Happy Stage 567 and Pliny, and also by Ammianus and Precopius, for certain Oriental tribes, long before the death of Muhammad


565

(see Gibbon). Some etymologists derive it from the Arabic sharq," the rising sun, the East" (see Wedgwood's Diet). Others from sahra' "a desert,"� the people of the desert (see Webster). Gibbon thinks it may be from the Arabic saraqah, "theft," denoting the thievish character of the nation; whilst some have even thought it may be derived from Sarah the wife of the Patriarch Abraham.

SARAH. Arabic Sarah, Monkey Happy Stage 567, Heb. , Greek Abraham's wife. Not mentioned by name in the Qur'an, but referred to in Surah xi. 74: "And his wife was standing by laughing, Monkey Happy Stage 567, and We gave her the glad tidings of Isaac, and of Jacob after Isaac."

SARAQAH. [THEFT.]

SARF.. (1) A term used for a special kind of sale or exchange. According to the Hidayah, bai'u 's-sarf, or ; sarf sale, means a pure sale, of which the articles opposed to each other in exchange are both representatives of price, as gold for gold or silver for silver. (See Hamilton's Hidayah, vol. ii. p. 551.)

2. That part of grammar which relates to the declining of nouns and the conjugating of verbs.

SARIH. Explicit or clear.

A term used in Muslim law for that which is express in contradistinction to that which is kinayah, or implied. For example, the Talaqu 's-sarih, is an explicit form of divorce, whilst Talaqu 'l-kinayah is an implied form of divorce, as when a man says to his wife, "Thou art free."

SARIQ.. A thief. [THEFT.]

SATAN. Arabic Shaitan [DEVIL.]

SATR. A curtain or veil. A term used for the seclusion of women, called also Hijab. In the Traditions it is used for necessary and decent attire, babu 'a-satr being a special chapter in the Mishkatu 'l-Masabih (book iv. ch. ix.). Monkey Happy Stage 567 satr for a man being from the waist to the knee, and for a free woman from the neck to the feet; but for a slave girl from the waist to the knee as in the case Monkey Happy Stage 567 a man. That part of the body which must be so covered is called 'aurah or 'aurat, "shame or modesty," from which Monkey Happy Stage 567 Hindstani word, 'aurat, "a woman," is derived. [HARIM, WOMEN.]

SATTUQAH.. Base coin. The term is used for a coin which is current amongst merchants, but is not received at the public treasury. Coins in which the pure metal predominates are not considered base, (see Hami